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Below, there are explanations of the things children should be able to do by the end of Key Stage 2 in Reading, Writing and Maths.


A child will be at the expected standard for reading if they can:

 • read age-appropriate books with confidence and fluency (including whole novels)
• read aloud with intonation that shows understanding
• work out the meaning of words from the context
• explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, drawing inferences and justifying these with evidence
• predict what might happen from details stated and implied
• retrieve information from non-fiction
• summarise main ideas, identifying key details and using quotations for illustration
• evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader
• make comparisons within and across books.


A child will be at the expected standard for reading if they can:
• write effectively for a range of purposes and audiences, selecting language that shows good awareness of the reader (e.g. the use of the first person in a diary; direct address in instructions and persuasive writing)
• in narratives, describe settings, characters and atmosphere
• integrate dialogue in narratives to convey character and advance the action
• select vocabulary and grammatical structures that reflect what the writing requires, doing this mostly appropriately (e.g. using contracted forms in dialogues in narrative; using passive verbs to affect how information is presented; using modal verbs to suggest degrees of possibility)
• use a range of devices to build cohesion (e.g. conjunctions, adverbials of time and place, pronouns, synonyms) within and across paragraphs
• use verb tenses consistently and correctly throughout their writing
• use the range of punctuation taught at key stage 2 mostly correctly^ (e.g. inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech)
• spell correctly most words from the year 5 / year 6 spelling list,* and use a dictionary to check the spelling of uncommon or more ambitious vocabulary
• maintain legibility in joined handwriting when writing at speed.2


A child will be at the expected standard for maths if they can:

• demonstrate an understanding of place value, including large numbers and decimals (e.g. what is the value of the ‘7’ in 276,541?; find the difference between the largest and smallest whole numbers that can be made from using three digits; 8.09 = 8 + 9/?; 28.13 = 28 ++ 0.03)
• calculate mentally, using efficient strategies such as manipulating expressions using commutative and distributive properties to simplify the calculation
(e.g. 53 – 82 + 47 = 53 + 47 – 82 = 100 – 82 = 18; 20 × 7 × 5 = 20 × 5 × 7 = 100 × 7 = 700; 53 ÷ 7 + 3 ÷ 7 = (53 + 3) ÷ 7 = 56 ÷ 7 = 8)
• use formal methods to solve multi-step problems (e.g. find the change from £20 for three items that cost £1.24, £7.92 and £2.55; a roll of material is 6m long: how much is left when 5 pieces of 1.15m are cut from the roll?; a bottle of drink is 1.5 litres, how many cups of 175ml can be filled from the bottle, and how much drink is left?)
• recognise the relationship between fractions, decimals and percentages and can express them as equivalent quantities (e.g. one piece of cake that has been cut into 5 equal slices can be expressed as 1/5 or 0.2 or 20% of the whole cake)
• calculate using fractions, decimals or percentages (e.g. knowing that 7 divided by 21 is the same as 7/21 and that this is equal to 1/3; 15% of 60; 11/2 + 3/4; 7/9 of 108; 0.8 x 70)
• substitute values into a simple formula to solve problems (e.g. perimeter of a rectangle or area of a triangle)
• calculate with measures (e.g. calculate length of a bus journey given start and end times; convert 0.05km into m and then into cm)
• use mathematical reasoning to find missing angles (e.g. the missing angle in an isosceles triangle when one of the angles is given; the missing angle in a more complex diagram using knowledge about angles at a point and vertically opposite angles).

Teacher assessment framework

This is the 2017-2018 teacher assessment framework used b y teachers in Year 6 to assess pupils against.

2018 writing exemplification materials

These are the writing exemplifications recently produced by the Standards and Testing agency. They show examples of children's work who are working towards the expected standard, at the expected standard and beyond the expected standard.